Caral, located 200 km from Lima and 15 km from the Pacific coast, is the center of the oldest civilization in the Western Hemisphere. Its period of occupation, 4000-5000 years ago, makes this site contemporaneous with early Egypt. Under the auspices of Dra. Ruth Shady, research focuses on all aspects of Caral’s development. This includes studying construction techniques of the massive structures, consideration of the breath of Caral’s influence in South American development and the lack of evidence of warfare or violence in the society. Numerous artifacts have been discovered in the course of excavation, including that of a quipu, the record keeping system and means of communication used in Pre-Columbian South America.